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        色彩3要素


        色彩的基本構成和常見色彩基礎知識講解



        色彩的定義


        我們肉眼看到的東西都有自己的色彩,色彩是依賴光存在的,沒有光就不會有色彩,色彩是物體對光譜的反射給人眼傳達的一種視覺信息。可以把顏色通過可見光的波長來劃分。


        可見光的光譜圖,標準太陽光是白色的合成光,由紅、橙、黃、綠、青、藍、紫,人肉眼能夠看到的波長大概是380到720 納米之間,就是我們通常所看到的七種顏色。


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        色彩的種類


        色彩光譜圖里我們大概能看到七種顏色紅、橙、黃、綠、青、藍、紫,那也是由這七種顏色構成我們常見的色彩,從而劃分色彩種類。通常表現色彩,在實際應用中有兩種方法,一種為印刷品的表現形式,就是由紅黃藍這三種實體物體的顏色,這是印刷品常用的三顏色;另一種為光色三顏色紅、綠、藍,就是電子顯示設備呈現色彩的顯示模式。


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        通過三顏色的調配,可以組合成千千萬萬的顏色,如紅色加藍色呈現紫色,藍色加黃色呈現綠色等,這就是印刷品的三顏色。


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        電子顯示設備的色彩顯示模式紅、綠、藍,即通常所說的rgb。(分別為red,green,blue三個單詞的首字母)


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        如圖紅色red255呈現的是標準紅色,綠色green255呈現的是標準綠,藍色blue255呈現的是標準藍。


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        如圖紫色是紅色255加藍色255構成的。若改為紅色50加藍色50,發現等值的紅色加藍色構成紫色。同樣等值的藍色和綠色相配構成比較淺的藍,等值的紅色加綠色構成黃色。


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        色彩的3大特點


        色彩的三要素包括色相、明度和純度(飽和度)。


        色相就是之前提到的色彩的種類,一種顏色就是一種色相,顧名思義即可。


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        明度是指同一種色彩即色相通過明暗變化呈現不同的色彩,比如下圖的橘子是同一種色彩,在不同的明度下,呈現的色彩效果不同。


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        純度(飽和度)


        純度可以理解為某種色相所含色彩的濃度。如圖兩人所穿衣服都為綠色,但是顏色有些變化,右邊衣服沒有左邊的顏色鮮艷,因為右邊的飽和度較低。我們可以把飽和度稱作人類眼睛識別色相的強烈程度,程度越強飽和度越高,反之越低。


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        案例


        打開PS拾色器,從左邊到右邊滑動,同種色彩的純度越來越高,從右往左滑動,雖然明度越來越高,但是色彩純度越來越低。從上往下滑,色彩明度越來越低即越來越暗,但是最右邊的純度是沒有改變的,越靠左純度越低,越靠下明度越低。


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        作業


        1.如圖找出下面兩人的照片哪張飽和度更高,哪張飽和度更低?


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        2.找出下圖黃色明度最高的區域并圈出來?


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